Analytical Techniques Used to Characterize Fenben Powder

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Analytical Techniques Used to Characterize Fenben Powder

Fenbendazole is a medication commonly prescribed to pets for deworming. It comes in a palatable flavoured powder form that can be easily mixed with ca

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Fenbendazole is a medication commonly prescribed to pets for deworming. It comes in a palatable flavoured powder form that can be easily mixed with canned food.

DSC and FTIR analyses demonstrate the physical compatibility of Fen with P 407, PCL, and PLA. The thermal studies indicate that the polymers are able to shift Fen melting peak area and height.
XRD

X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a powder characterization technique that allows for phase analysis. It relies on constructive interference of monochromatic X-rays with a crystalline sample and is based on Bragg’s law which correlates the wavelength of radiation with the lattice spacing of the crystal structure.

Detailed characterization of the crystalline components of oil sand fine tailings can be achieved using XRD. A typical XRD pattern shows that the residual solids are dominated by quartz. The use of alkaline Tiron solution to separate the amorphous components from the crystalline material enables this identification.

Fenbendazole (Fen) is an anthelmintic of the benzimidazoles family, which has been used for veterinary and human parasitic diseases for over six decades. It is effective against gastrointestinal nematodes and lung worms in cattle, sheep, goats and pigs.
FTIR

FTIR is one of the most widely used analytical techniques for solid, liquid and gaseous samples. IR systems are designed to detect specific vibrational energy patterns within molecules and to report the raw data as a series of absorption response values.

Each chemical structure has a unique vibrational pattern that can be measured, and these are displayed in the FTIR spectrum. FTIR testing is conducted using an interferometer that consists of a beam splitter and two mirrors, both of which can translate back and forth. Radiation strikes the sample, absorbing some of it. The rest is reflected to the detector, where it is converted into a signal. The signal is then analyzed to produce the FTIR spectrum. FTIR is most often used in conjunction with gas chromatography (GC) and/or mass spectrometry to identify compounds.
DSC

DSC is a measurement technique that allows for the quantitative analysis of thermal properties. In a DSC experiment, energy is introduced simultaneously to both a sample and a reference cell that is thermally stable. The difference in the amount of energy required to bring the sample to a program temperature compared to that of the reference is proportional to the energy absorbed or released by the sample during a transition or reaction.

The physical mixtures of Fen, P 407, PCL and PLA displayed three endothermic peaks, confirming that the compounds have compatibility. The thermogravimetric curves showed that Fen and the polymeric excipients exhibited physical and chemical interaction, as evidenced by their ability to shift the melting point, decrease the peak area and height, and reduce the enthalpy of fusion.
TGA/DTG

TGA is useful for determining the purity and composition of materials. It also helps to know the drying and ignition temperatures of compounds. TGA is performed under pyrolysis conditions using nitrogen gas and a 10 degC/min heating rate. Tight sample mass control is important for accurate results. This ensures that any changes in the TGA curve are due to the sample alone and not the instrument, and allows for a greater level of run-to-run reproducibility.

The FT-IR and EDX spectra of Fen in PEO/PCL blend-based monolithic matrices showed that the drug was dispersed homogenously inside the polymeric carrier. Moreover, EDX spectroscopy revealed the presence of carbon, oxygen and sulfur in all formulations. The analysis of the thermal behavior of the API is an important part of pharmaceutical development.
HPLC

HPLC is a technique used to separate compounds in liquid samples. It uses pumps to pass a pressurized mixture of solvent and sample through a column containing an adsorbent. The analyte binds to the adsorbent in proportion to its polarity and interacts with it through a variety of physical forces such as Van der Waals, electrostatic, dipole-dipole and hydrophobic interactions.

A detector unit recognizes the analyte and signals it to a computer, which records the results as a chromatogram. HPLC is widely used in chemistry laboratories and can be adapted to different separation purposes. Fenbendazole is an animal anthelmintic with a track record of effectiveness against hookworms (Necator americanus) and Ascaris. It is also a useful tool in studying the pharmacological properties of compounds.fenben powder

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